Volume 4, Number 3
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Science International Vol. 4 (3), 2016
Research Article
Allelopathic Interference of Leaf Powder and Aqueous Extracts of Hostile Weed: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae)
Tauseef Anwar, Shahida Khalid, Maimona Saeed, Roomina Mazhar, Huma Qureshi and Madiha Rashid
Abstract: Background: Allelopathy is a pragmatic approach to sustainable weed management. There is an increasing interest in exploration of plant allelopahty for weed management strategies in agro-ecosystems. Allelochemicals could be used for weed management directly or indirectly (using their chemistry) to develop new herbicides. There is a crucial need to discover new weed control technologies which will overcome limitations faced by synthetic chemicals and are eco-friendly. Allelopathy is an environment friendly and economic technique in controlling weeds. Materials and Methods: Allelopathic activity of Parthenium hysterophorus was examined against the seed growth of five test species i.e., Avena fatua, Rumex dentatus, Helianthus annuus (var., K.S.E 7777), Zea mays (var., Islamabad Gold 2010) and Triticum aestivum (var., Wafaq 2001). Two screening methods, i.e., aqueous extract method and plant sandwich method were used to investigate the allelopathic activity of P. hysterophorus to seeds and pre-germinated seeds (radicle protruded by at least 1 mm) of test species on filter paper and soil. Following three parameters were used in allelopathic screening methodologies. (a) Germination percentage (%), (b) Radicle length (cm) and (c) Plumule length (cm). The STATISTIX 9 software was used for analysis of results. Means were separated by using Fisher’s protected LSD test. Results: Results of petri plate experiment had shown greatest decrease of 87.6% in sunflower followed by Rumex dentatus 83.6%, maize 78.7%, wheat 58.2 and 26.6% Avena fatua as compared to their respective control in aqueous extract. A similar decrease was observed in radicle length of test plant species by aqueous extract in soil. Plumule length of cereals wheat and maize were more drastically affected by aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus resulted 75.2 and 83.25% decrease as compared to their respective control. A significant decrease of 40, 49.37 and 52.2% was recorded in plumule length of Avenafatua, Rumex dentatus and Helianthus annuus as compared to their control plants. A considerable decrease of 93.06% was observed in radicle length of Rumex dentatus by powder extract of Parthenium hysterophorus in petri plate experiment. Radicle length of wheat and maize were greatly affected by powder extract leading to 70.2 and 76.2% decrease as compared to control plant while radicle length of Avena fatua was less affected resulting 24.8% decrease as compared to control plant. Same effects of powder extract on radicle length were recorded in soil germinated seeds. Germination of all the test species was suppressed with aqueous extracts and plant powder. Parthenium also suppressed growth of weeds at seedling stage with both type of amendments. Conclusion: Current findings provide evidence that the Parthenium hysterophorus has strong potential as allelopathic plant but according to the results it significantly decreased the germination and growth of the wheat plant. The study revealed that Parthenium employed an inhibitory effect on weed growth and can be explored as bio herbicide.
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